Икономическо развитие на Китай през ХХ век


Chinese empire entered XXth century as bacward semi-colony of developed West European countries and the USA. Back in the middle of XVIIIth century it had closed its trade system for foreign goods as a reaction against expansion of European powers in the Far East. Thus China deprived themselves of contact with scientific and technological achievements of Industrial revolution. The comparative share of China in the world production decreased sharply. While in 1750 it was 32,8 %, in 1880 it became 12,5 %, and in 1900 – 6,2 %.

European powers began fight for obtaining their “spheres of influence “ in China. Thus in 1899 UK and Russia came to an agreement: the first one should not attempt gaining railroad concessions northward from the Great wall and Russia shouldn’t have claim any railroad concessions in the basin of the great river Yanczu. Germany and France also set spheres of influence in China. Lead by the their trade interests, in 1899 USA insisted on and managed to imply on the other Great powers their so called “doctrine of open doors” in China. According to that concept every one of them should have respected the interests of the other states in its sphere of influence. Due to the reason that not a single country could imply a monopole influence on Chine they all agreed to the concept of “Open doors’.

During the first decade of XX c. introduction of foreign capitals in Chinese economy grew stronger. By 1914 direct foreign investment reached 1085 million USD. 33% of them were invested in railroad construction and road construction in general. Railroads loans and building concessions granted

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